Havdalah Made Easy
Abraham Joshua Heschel called Shabbat a cathedral in time. While in that "cathedral," we live as if the world were perfect, needing no change. We may close our computers and leave our work selves behind, to relish our family and friends, our beautiful world and to express our gratitude. We open the door to that cathedral as the sun sets on Friday evening and we sadly close the door twenty-five hours later with the Havdalah ritual.
Havdalah is Hebrew for separation. As we metaphorically close the door on Shabbat, we remind ourselves of the differing qualities of time that we have experienced. Just as we mark the end of childhood with bar/bat mitzvah, the end of high school and college with graduation ceremonies, Jews around the world mark the end of the special time of Shabbat and our reluctant move back to the world and all its demands with Havdalah.
Guide to the Synagogue Sanctuary, From Ark to Yad
An introduction to the parts that make up a synagogue sanctuary.
Looking around the synagogue you will see the eastern wall, where the aron ha-kodesh (the holy ark) is located. The ark is the repository for the Torah scrolls when they are not in use. It also serves as the focus for one’s prayers. Above the ark is located the ner tamid–the eternal light — recalling the eternal light in the Temple (Exodus 27:20–21).
Arks can be decorated in innumerable ways and come in many different sizes, shapes, and materials. The central part of the ark is a cabinet that contains the Torah scrolls. This usually has a parochet — curtain — covering it. (Many Sephardic shul s do not have a parochet.) The parochet is often elaborately designed with many embellishments; some shuls have a special white parochet used only for the High Holidays. Because the parochet is considered holy, it is treated like any holy object–e.g., books, Torah scrolls, etc.–and is never discarded. [Instead, it is buried when no longer used.]
Celebrating Shabbat in Many Ways
Contemporary Jews have adapted traditional Shabbat practices in non-traditional and sometimes surprising ways.
Technically, the laws of Shabbat [can seem] draconian. There are thirty-nine official “don’ts,” and they each have subcategories that add hundreds more. One cannot mow the lawn, hunt for food, light a fire, plant a seed, cook food, boil water, sew on a button, erect a tent, use a hammer, bake a cake, or gather kindling.
Derived from these ancient laws, a host of modern restrictions has been added by scholars, so now it is forbidden [according to Orthodox interpretation of the law] to turn on a computer, drive a car, flick on a light switch, talk on the phone, replace a battery, or watch television. The list is a long one. Conservative rabbis prohibit many of these same activities, but the level of observance among the Conservative laity is not as widespread as it is among the Orthodox. Reform rabbis, for the most part, say that these ancient restrictions are no longer binding, but they increasingly add that if people find meaning in the restrictions, they should incorporate them into their religious lives.
The Intermediate Days of Sukkot
By MLJ Staff
Called hol hamoed, the intermediate days are observed differently than the beginning and final ones.
Sukkot is a holiday made up of both a beginning yom tov (holiday) and subsequent days of hol hamoed (intermediate festival days). This means that the opening of the holiday (the yom tov) is observed similarly to how one would observe a Sabbath (with certain differences). The ensuing or intermediate days of the holiday still form part of the festival, but are observed differently. It is traditional to decrease one’s amount of work on the intermediate days, though the prohibition of labor for the intermediate days is not as encompassing as Shabbat or yom tov.
Avinu Malkeinu When Yom Kippur Falls Out on Shabbat
Question: I understand that this year, with Yom Kippur falling out on Shabbat, we will not be saying Avinu Malkeinu, except at Ne’ila. What makes Avinu Malkeinu fitting, among all the tefillot of Yom Kippur, to be eliminated, and why is Ne’ila an exception?
Answer: First, we imagine you are Ashkenazi, as most Sephardic communities do recite Avinu Malkeinu on Yom Kippur that falls out on Shabbat, although many leave out the passages that mention sinning (see Yechaveh Da’at I, 54 and Mikraei Kodesh (Harari), Yom Kippur 5:12). Many Sephardim even say Avinu Malkeinu on Rosh Hashana that falls out on Shabbat and on Shabbat Shuva (ibid.).
Indeed, almost all Ashkenazim and some Sephardim omit Avinu Malkeinu on Shabbat even on Yom Kippur. The reason is that one is not allowed to make requests on Shabbat (Rama, Orach Chayim 584:1 and Mishna Berura ad loc. 4). It is true that we do recite passages that contain special requests (e.g., Zachreinu l’chayim …) on Shabbat, and the justification is that since they are written in the plural, it is considered the needs of the community, which is permitted (see Tosafot, Berachot 34a). However, the fact that Avinu Malkeinu originated as a special prayer for fast days (Ta’anit 25b) is part of the reason that it is treated as a particularly plaintive prayer that is inappropriate for Shabbat.